The Dragon Boat Festival, also known as the Dragon Boat Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Double Fifth Festival, Tianzhong Festival, is a collection of worship, praying for good luck to ward off evil spirits, celebrating entertainment and food as one of the folk festival. The Dragon Boat Festival originates from the worship of natural sky, evolved from the ancient times to sacrifice dragon. In the middle of the summer Dragon Boat Festival, the Canglong seven night flies to the center of the south, in the most "right" position of the year, just like the fifth line in the Book of Changes · Qiangua :" Flying dragon in the sky ". Dragon Boat Festival is the auspicious day of "flying Dragon in the sky", dragon and dragon boat culture has been throughout the history of the Dragon Boat Festival.
The Dragon Boat Festival is a traditional cultural festival popular in China and the cultural circle of Chinese characters. It is said that Qu Yuan, a poet in the state of Chu in the Warring States period, committed suicide by jumping into the Miluo River on the fifth day of the fifth month. There are also commemorations of Wu Zixu, Cao E and Jie Zitui. The origin of the Dragon Boat Festival covers the ancient astrological culture, humanistic philosophy and other aspects of the content, contains profound and rich cultural connotation, in the inheritance and development of a variety of folk customs as a whole, due to different regional culture and there are differences in the content or details of customs.
The Dragon Boat Festival is one of the four traditional Chinese festivals, along with the Spring Festival, Tomb-sweeping Day and the Mid-Autumn Festival. Dragon Boat Festival culture has a wide influence in the world, some countries and regions in the world also celebrate the Dragon Boat Festival activities. In May 2006, The State Council listed it in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage. Since 2008, it has been listed as a national statutory holiday. In September 2009, UNESCO officially approved its inclusion in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, and the Dragon Boat Festival became the first Chinese festival to be included in the World Intangible Cultural Heritage.
The word "Duan" has the meaning of "initial", so "Duan Wu" is "fifth day". And according to the calendar, May is the "afternoon" month so "Dragon Boat Five" will gradually become the "Dragon Boat Festival". "Yanjing at the age of the record" records "the fifth day for May single five cover the end of the word also." Origin legend about the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival summed up, there are roughly the following：
1, think Dragon Boat Festival is dragon Festival. Wen Yiduo's Dragon Boat Festival research research Dragon Boat Festival is the ancient Wu Yue folk totem festival that Dragon Boat Festival is actually a dragon festival.
2, the Dragon Boat Festival is to commemorate the death of Qu Yuan, a poet of the state of Chu. According to the "continuation of Qi harmonic record" recorded Qu Yuan in the fifth day of the fifth month into the Miluo River and died of Chu people mourning every day with bamboo tube rice thrown into the river offering.
3. According to the Book of Rites, Dragon Boat Festival originated in the Zhou Dynasty.
4. It is believed that the Dragon Boat Festival was written in CAI Yong's Qin Cao in the Eastern Han Dynasty to commemorate Jie Zitui.
5. It is believed that the Dragon Boat Festival published in the Source of Things by Gao Cheng in the Song Dynasty originated from the Spring and Autumn Period when Gou Jian, King of Yue, exercised his naval forces.
6, that Liang Zonglin "Jingzhou Age Shi Ji" paraphrase Dragon Boat Festival is to welcome the "God of Tao" Wu Zixu. The Book of Later Han also says that Yu Wu in Zhejiang Province wishes Cao Xu to meet Wu Zixu by dancing on the Cao 'e River on the fifth day of May. Later, people in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces held various ceremonies to mourn Wu Zixu during the Dragon Boat Festival upstream.
7. It is believed that the fifth day of the fifth month is the day of ancestor worship in the Book of Tao.
8, is according to the "Kuaiji Dian record" book records the Dragon Boat Festival is to commemorate the death of Cao E looking for his father into the river.
9. It is believed that the Dragon Boat Festival originated from the Summer Solstice in the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties.
10. There is a folk legend that Dragon Boat Festival originated in Shahu, Mianyang, Hubei Province. After four heroes dedicated to stealing from the rich and giving to the poor, they were attacked and besieged by local soldiers and died on the fifth day of May. The local people were so sad that they designated the day as Dragon Boat Festival to mourn.
Dragon Boat Race
Dragon boat race before the first to invite the dragon, worship god. Some before the Dragon Boat Festival from underwater, offering in the South China Sea temple in the South China Sea God, on the dragon head, dragon tail, and then ready to race. And buy a pair of paper cockerels to put on the dragon boat, thought can bless the ship's safety (vaguely corresponding to the ancient bird boat). Fujian, Taiwan to the Mazu Temple worship. Some directly sacrifice to the dragon head on the river, kill the chicken blood on the dragon head. Some will go to the Quzi temple before the race, the dragon head for worship in the word god Weng, red cloth on the dragon head, and then an dragon head on the boat race, both worship the dragon God, and commemorate Qu Yuan. All kinds of sacrifice, memorial ceremony, is nothing more than lighting incense, burning paper money, for chicken, rice, meat, fruit, zongzi, etc. These superstitious rituals are rare today, but in the past, people worshipped the dragon temple in a very serious atmosphere, praying for a good harvest, good weather, evil spirits, trouble, all the best, and safe boating. In people's words, "a lucky picture", to express people's inner good wishes. At the beginning of the official race, the atmosphere was very warm. Modern dragon boat races are much the same, but the rules are a little stricter. In recent years, there have been international dragon boat races at home and abroad, attracting athletes from all over the world. Besides racing speed, there are other activities in dragon boat rowing. For example, dragon boat tour, is the dragon boat race in the nearby familiar with the village to play, meeting. Sometimes the dragon boat has a variety of patterns of rowing, with the meaning of performance. There are also cruise boat races. There are night dragon boats and dry dragon boats, which are simulated dragon boat races on land. In addition, should also mention the female dragon ship. In the past, women were not allowed to participate in the dragon boat race in many places, and it was considered unlucky for women to touch the dragon boat. Nowadays, there are female dragon boat teams everywhere. The heroic women strive to win the honor and compete for the first place, no less than the bearded men.
With the Spring Festival have dragon dance also have phoenix dance, Dragon Boat Festival also have phoenix boat. Chicken the source of the boat as the above, is originated from the ancient bird boat, Yi boat. There were phoenix-ah in the ancient court (such as the Ming court in Tianfu Guangji), and there were phoenix-boat races among the people. "Yue Sac" contains: "dragon boat to hang doctor, Fengfeng after Fengtian, and five days for the victory of the meeting. The summer of the afternoon, Panyu Shiqiao village into ten thousand gold, the system of Fengshu, long ten zhangs, wide Zhangs three, the head and tail aloft, two sides of the heavy wing for Shu collect, carrying the temple, to Fengtian, swim the water towns. After 1964 came windboat racing. This kind of wind boat is a little short, can seat 16 members, decorated with the head of the phoenix, the tail, by the female team race across. It is indeed a good form of competition, to match the dragon and Phoenix. In some places there are dragon and phoenix boats. "Shunde County records" contained: "the dragon and phoenix of the great good ship wonderful very gorgeous." But it's gone now. Some dragon boats are equipped with a dragon head in the front and a phoenix tail in the back. The tail of the dragon boat is fan-shaped with bamboo strips wrapped with red paper and inserted in the stern, such as the moment tail, which can also be called the dragon and phoenix boat. Dragon and Phoenix boat, seems to be the dragon boat and bird boat fusion left behind the traces.
TRADITIONAL FOOD CUSTOMS
The earliest appearance of the Dragon Boat Festival food, should be the Western Han Dynasty "owl soup". As Chun said in the notes of "Wu Di Benji" in the Records of the Grand Historian: "Han sent the East county to send the owl, and on May 5, he gave the owl soup to Baiguan. Eat bad birds, so eat them." Perhaps because they are not easy to catch, the custom of eating them did not last. But the main character of the Dragon Boat Festival - zongzi, in the Eastern Han Dynasty has appeared a little later. Until the Jin Dynasty, zongzi became the Dragon Boat Festival should be the festival food. "The fifth of May, the same as the summer solstice... The first two sections a day, and to mushroom leaves wrapped glutinous rice, mixed with millet, to chun thick gray juice cooked." At the same time, there is another Dragon Boat Festival food, called "turtle" also only a flash in the pan in the Jin Dynasty, then disappeared. Only the zongzi called "Jiaoshu" in the book of Local Conditions, because attached to the legend of Qu Yuan, has become the most popular Dragon Boat Festival food for thousands of years.
"Zongzi incense, incense kitchen. Wormwood leaves fragrance, fragrance filled the hall. Peach sticks inserted in the door, go out a look at the wheat yellow. Here, there, everywhere." This is a popular folk song about the Dragon Boat Festival. Generally speaking, people around the Dragon Boat Festival customs are much the same, and the Dragon Boat Festival eating zongzi, throughout the ages, China is the same. Today's zongzi is more diverse and bright. Nowadays, zongzi around the general use of reed shell wrapped glutinous rice, but the color is based on the local specialty and custom, the famous longan reed, meat reed, crystal reed, lotus seed paste reed, preserved reed, chestnut reed, spicy reed, pickled cabbage reed, ham reed, salted egg reed and so on.
Drink Realgar Wine
The custom of drinking realgar wine during the Dragon Boat Festival was very popular in the Yangtze River Basin. As the old saying goes, "If you drink realgar wine, all the diseases will go away." Realgar is a mineral, commonly known as "cockscomb stone", its main component is arsenic sulfide, and contains mercury, toxic. Common drinking realgar wine is made by adding a trace of realgar to white wine or homemade yellow wine, and it is not pure to drink. Realgar wine has the effect of sterilization, insect repellent and detoxification. It is also used to treat skin diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. In ancient times, when there were no disinfectants such as iodine, soaking wine with realgar could remove poison and relieve itching. Not to drink the age of children, adults to their forehead, ears and nose, hands and feet and so on smear on the realgar wine, intended to disinfect disease prevention, insects do not sting.
In some areas, tea eggs and salted eggs are boiled during the Dragon Boat Festival. Eggs are eggs, duck eggs, goose eggs. Eggshell painted red, with colorful net bag, hanging on the neck of the child, meaning to wish the child luck, safe and sound. Some of the Dragon Boat Festival day, the housewives of the home get up very early, will be prepared in advance garlic and eggs boiled together, for the family breakfast. In some places, they cook garlic and eggs with a few mugwort leaves. Breakfast with garlic, eggs and baked bread oil is said to avoid the "five poisons" and be good for health.
Dragon Boat Festival Application For World Heritage
In May 2009, China started the process of applying for the World Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Dragon Boat Festival. The project was submitted to the United Nations by Hubei Province on behalf of China. Currently, the application for the World Heritage of the Dragon Boat Festival has entered the preliminary evaluation stage. China has started the application process for the Dragon Boat Festival. Yesterday, the reporter learned from the provincial intangible Cultural heritage protection center: the project has been submitted to the United Nations by Hubei province on behalf of China. According to Zhu Linfei, deputy director of the provincial intangible cultural heritage protection center, the declaration of the heritage name is "Chinese Dragon Boat Festival", by the Zigui County in Hubei Province "Qu Yuan hometown Dragon Boat Festival custom", Huangshi City "Xisai Shenzhou Club" and Miluo City in Hunan Province "Miluo River bank Dragon Boat Festival custom" Suzhou Dragon Boat Festival "four parts of the content, declaration materials by the three provinces joint" packaging ". Entrusted by the Ministry of Culture, Hubei province submitted the declaration form and related materials to UNESCO on behalf of China in October 2009.
It is reported that the above three provinces and four areas of the "Dragon Boat Festival customs", has been announced in 2006 the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. The Dragon Boat Festival has a history of more than 2500 years. It is derived from the festival custom of warding off evil and poison, and various folk activities such as sacrifice, entertainment, health care and so on. The main activities are offering sacrifices to Qu Yuan, commemorating Wu Zixu, planting mugwort, hanging calamus, eating zongzi, dragon boat race, etc. The activities are slightly different, especially Zigui County and Huangshi City in Hubei Province are more typical. This is why Hubei is the main body of the "Dragon Boat Festival application" work. According to the relevant regulations, each country is only allowed to declare one "intangible cultural heritage" project to the United Nations every year, the Dragon Boat Festival in 2008 officially became a national holiday, is also the only world "world heritage" project in 2008.
The Dragon Boat Festival by Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu three provinces and four places jointly declared, including a total of 4 parts, respectively are Suzhou City of Jiangsu Province "Suzhou Dragon Boat Festival custom", Zigui County of Hubei Province "Qu Yuan's hometown Dragon Boat Festival custom", Huangshi City "Xisai Shenzhou Club" and Miluo City of Hunan "Miluo River bank Dragon Boat Festival custom". On September 30, 2009, the Fourth session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of UNESCO reviewed and approved 76 items to be included in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. China occupied 22 items, including the Dragon Boat Festival, Cantonese opera, calligraphy, seal cutting and paper cutting. The Dragon Boat Festival is the first Chinese festival to be listed as a world intangible Heritage site.