The Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as the Festival of offering sacrifices to the moon, lunar birthday, lunar evening, autumn Festival, midautumn Festival, worship of the moon, moon Festival, Moon Festival, Reunion Festival, etc., is a traditional Chinese folk festival. The Mid-Autumn Festival originated from the worship of the sky, from the ancient times of the autumn festival festival evolved from the moon. The Mid-Autumn Festival since ancient times has been offering sacrifices to the moon, enjoying the moon, eating moon cakes, watching lanterns, appreciating osmanthus, drinking osmanthus wine and other folk customs, spread so far, the Mid-Autumn Festival originated in ancient times, popular in the Han Dynasty, shaped in the early Tang Dynasty, popular in the Song Dynasty after. The Mid-Autumn Festival is the synthesis of autumn customs, which contains festival and custom factors, most of which have ancient origins. The Mid-Autumn Festival with the reunion of the full moon, as the sustenance of missing home, missing loved ones, pray for harvest, happiness, become a rich and colorful, precious cultural heritage. At first, the festival was held on the Autumn Equinox, the 24 solar terms of the Gan Zhi calendar. Later, it was moved to the 15th day of August in the Xia calendar. The Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the four traditional Chinese festivals, along with the Spring Festival, Tomb-Sweeping Day and Dragon Boat Festival. Influenced by Chinese culture, Mid-Autumn Festival is also a traditional festival in some countries in East Asia and Southeast Asia, especially among the local Chinese. On May 20, 2006, The State Council listed it in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage. The Mid-Autumn Festival has been listed as a national holiday since 2008.
The Mid-Autumn Festival originated from the worship of the sky, from the ancient times of the autumn festival festival evolved from the moon. To sacrifice to the moon, in our country is a very ancient custom, it is a kind of worship activity of the ancient people in some places of our country to the "moon God". In the Autumn equinox of 24 solar Terms, is the ancient "festival of offering sacrifices to the moon". The Mid-Autumn Festival is from the traditional "autumnal equinox sacrifice moon". As one of the important folk festivals, moon worship has gradually evolved into the activities of appreciating the moon and praising the moon.
The Mid-Autumn Festival was popularized in the Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty was a period of economic and cultural exchange and integration between the north and the south. According to records, in the Han Dynasty, and on the Mid-Autumn Festival or the start of Autumn day to respect the elderly, elderly care, to give male coarse cake activities. In the Jin Dynasty, there are also written records of appreciating the moon on the Mid-Autumn Festival, but it is not very common. In the Jin Dynasty, the Mid-Autumn Festival was not popular in the north of China.
The Tang Dynasty Mid-Autumn custom has been popular in the north of our country. The Mid-Autumn Festival became an official national holiday around the Tang Dynasty. The book of Tang Dynasty Taizong records the Mid-Autumn Festival on August 15. The custom of enjoying the moon on Mid-Autumn Festival flourished in Chang 'an during the Tang Dynasty, and many poets wrote poems about the moon in their famous articles. And the Mid-Autumn Festival and the Chang 'e moon, Wu Gang cut GUI, Yutu tamping medicine, Yang Guifei change the moon God, Tang Ming Emperor tour moon palace and other mythic stories, make it full of romantic color, play the wind just Daxing. The Tang Dynasty was an important period when traditional festivals and customs were mixed and formed.
The Northern Song Dynasty, the official lunar calendar August 15 for the Mid-Autumn Festival. Literary works appeared in "small cakes such as chewing month, crisp and Yi" holiday food. Such as Meng elder "Tokyo Menghua record" said: "in the autumn night, your home decoration pavilion, folk occupy restaurants play month"; And "string heavy cauldroning, near the extension of residents, at night to hear the sound of sheng taro, like clouds. Room children, even night marriage play; The night market is a beautiful place. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the worldly interest became more and more intense.
Ming and Qing Dynasties of the activities of the moon, "the offering of fruit cake will be round", each family to set up "moonlight position", in the direction of the moon "to the month and worship." Lu Qihong "Beijing Age Hua Ji" contains: "in the autumn night, people each place the symbol of the moon, the symbol is not such as people stand; Chen Guanguo in court, cake surface painting moon palace toad free; Men and women worship and burn incense." "Emperor scenery slightly" also said: "August 15 offering to the moon, its cake will be round, melon will be tooth wrong, petal engraved such as lotus. ... The woman returned to Ning, is the day will return to the husband's home, Yue Festival also."
So far, eating moon cakes has been a necessary custom for the Mid-Autumn Festival in the north and south. Mooncakes symbolize happy reunion. People regard them as festival food, offering sacrifices to the moon and presenting them to relatives and friends. In addition to mooncakes, a variety of fresh and dried seasonal fruits are also delicious food in Mid-Autumn nights. During the Mid-Autumn Festival, the clouds are thin and the moonlight is bright and bright. There are a series of festival activities such as enjoying the moon, offering sacrifices to the moon, eating moon cakes, eating sweet potatoes, raising lanterns, dancing grass dragons, trees and building pagodas.
Prepare Offerings And Cut Grass To Offer Sacrifices To Ancestors
Even before the Chuseok Festival, Korean families living in Cheolyeong, Gaewon, Changtu, and Seopeng are preparing for Chuseok. Ancestor worship is the top event of the Mid-Autumn Festival. People should prepare items for worship. When the annual production of jujube, chestnut, persimmon, apple, there is a special choice of these items as tribute. The Korean ancestors believed that jujube yield high, chestnut less insect pests, to make offerings to symbolize the health and longevity of children and grandchildren. Persimmon can be sold as either fresh fruit or dried persimmon, promising a bonanza. Apple is associated with peace and tranquility. In addition to sacrificial food, rice flour and red beans were also prepared for muffins. New rice is also used to brew mellow rice wine, which is indispensable for family reunions and banquets on the day of the Mid-Autumn Festival. On the day of August 15 or the day before, the family will go to the ancestral grave together to offer sacrifices. Relatives who are away from home will also return home to cut grass for the Autumn Eve Festival.
Taste Food, Drink Wine, Festive Harvest
After returning home from ancestor worship, the women would help the men make rice cakes, wrap the muffin cakes, and prepare a rich table of food. Rice cake, because of the production process is mainly beaten with a mallet named. Put steamed glutinous rice (or yellow rice) into a wooden or stone trough and use a wooden mallet to "pa, pa, pa..." Repeatedly beat, Sheng Sheng beat a grain of glutinous rice into a sinewy palatable cake. It is also served in an elaborate way, with homemade red bean paste and soybean noodles mixed with sugar or salt. Muffin cake is also called moon cake, and its appearance is very similar to the dumplings eaten by the Han people during the Chinese New Year. For the muffin crust, you use the new rice of the year. The muffin filling is made of red beans, soybeans, chestnuts and red dates. When the muffins are in the pan, the steamer is lined with old pine leaves. At the same time, the yard has sounded the noisy sound of drums and gongs, is the team of scalpers to play. The villagers heard the sound of gongs and drums and rushed out, following the huge team, driving the "old ox" to visit the rice fields and villages. The Old Ox and his fellow villagers would sometimes stop suddenly at the door of a house that must have produced the best crop in the village that year. Standing at the gate, the old Ox called out, "After a year's hard work, the old ox is thirsty and hungry, and wants something to eat and drink from the master of the house!" Hearing this, the host immediately opened the door with a big smile, welcomed the "old Yellow ox" and the villagers, and presented the prepared wine and rice cakes and other delicious food to warmly receive the guests. "Old Yellow Ox" and the villagers danced the farmer's music dance, wishing the family and the whole village good weather in the coming year, planting good crops and having a good harvest.
In The Moonlight, Jump "River River Water Moon."
After the sun goes down, people start to use the prepared pine branches or sorghum stalks, straw, straw rope and so on on the ground to erect a small "door", this "door" represents the moon house, then, everyone squatted around the "moon room" waiting for the moon to rise. When the moon rose, people ran to the "moon room" one after another, and the first person who ran to the front set the "moon room" on fire. In this way, in the hearts of every Korean folks, the old moon was burned away, and a new full moon rose in the sky. With the bright moon in the sky, the Korean women put on their festive costumes. In the moonlight, they hold hands and happily dance the folk dance "Jiang Jiang Shui Yue Lai".
STORY & lEGEND
Chang 'e Flying To The Moon
The myth of Chang 'e flying to the moon originated from the ancient people's worship of the stars. The story of Chang 'e flying to the moon first appeared in Guizang. Later, folk stories were further developed into multiple versions. Chang 'e boarded the moon because, according to the book Huainan Zi of the Western Han Dynasty, she stole the deathless medicine her husband Houyi had brought from the Queen Mother of the West, flew into the moon palace and became a toad smashing the medicine.
Wu Gang Cut Gui
Wu Gang climbed to the moon palace and won the laurel. According to the Tang Dynasty novel Youyang Zaozu, Wu Gang, a Xihe man, made a mistake in repairing the immortal and was sent to cut the laurel tree in the moon. The laurel tree grows as it is cut, and it will never cease to be cut. Li Bai wrote in his poem "Giving Cui Si Hu Wen Kun Ji" : "To be mowed down with the laurel of the middle month, hold it for those who are cold."
The Jade Rabbit Rammed Medicine
Rabbit on the moon to tamper with medicine, the earliest seen in Qu Yuan's "Tianwen" "Jue Levy, and look, dodder in the abdomen? . It means that Gu and Dodder in the belly of the moon, what good is it to the moon? How did the rabbit get to the moon? Gu is the toad, dodder is the white rabbit. The Jin Dynasty Fu Xuan's "Imitation heaven Ask" also said: "In the middle of any, white rabbit pound medicine." According to Mr. Wen Yiduo's research, this "White rabbit tamping medicine" is changed from "toad tamping medicine". Chang 'e has a jade rabbit beside her. Chang 'e is said to have picked up the rabbit she had been feeding in a panic when she became lighter and began to lift off. So the white rabbit went up to the moon with her. The Jade Rabbit has a medicine pestle in the moon palace, at night in the medicine mortar pound elixir of life. When this myth spread to Japan, it became the Jade rabbit pounding rice cakes.
Story Of Xuanzong
According to legend, Tang Xuanzong and Shen Tianshi and Taoist priest Hong are the Mid-Autumn moon, suddenly Xuanzong rose up the idea of the moon palace, so the practice of Tianshi, three people started on the Qingyun, roaming the moon palace. But the palace was heavily guarded, unable to enter, only outside overlooking the imperial city of Chang 'an. At this time, suddenly Wen Xian bursts, Tang Xuanzong has always been familiar with the cadence, so remember the heart. This is: "This song should only be in the sky, the world can get several times!" In the future, Xuanzong recalled the music and songs of the moon palace fairy MOE, and composed his own music and choreography, creating the famous "Nishang Yuyi Song" in history.
The tradition of eating moon cakes at Mid-Autumn Festival began in the Yuan Dynasty. It is said that at that time, the vast majority of people in the Central Plains could not bear the cruel rule of the ruling class of the Yuan Dynasty, one after another uprising against the Yuan. Zhu Yuanzhang united various rebel forces to prepare for the uprising. But the court officers and soldiers search is very tight, it is very difficult to convey information. Advisor Liu Bowen came up with a strategy, command the possession of the "August 15 night uprising" of the note hidden inside cake, and then sent to the rebel forces across the region, inform them in August 15 night uprising response. On the day of the revolt, the rebel armies responded in unison. Soon, Xu Da captured Dadu and the uprising was successful. The news came, Zhu Yuanzhang was happy to hurriedly pass down the next oracular, in the coming Mid-Autumn Festival, let all the soldiers and the people, and when the army to secretly convey the message of "moon cake", as the holiday cake reward of ministers. Since then, the production of "moon cakes" has become more and more elaborate, with more varieties. Later, the custom of eating moon cakes during the Mid-Autumn Festival spread among the people.